Five C's of Survival
The top five tools to carry with you in the wilderness
The "Five C's of Survivability", often cited by survival expert Dave Canterbury of the awesome survival show 'Dual Survival', is an easy way to remember 5 of the most important resources you want to have with you in the bush.
The five C's are...
• Cutting device
• Combustion device
Disclaimer: While I first heard this list from Dave Canterbury, I personally have written the following explanations and am not copying nor attributing the following text to him, so don't sue me!
First of all, it's common knowledge that having a cutting device like a knife or machete is absolutely KEY to bushcraft living. Only a complete greenhorn would question the usefulness of a knife in the bush. It is arguably the most important "C" on the list.
There are many different types of knives with different purposes. Finding the one that's right for you and your situation will depend on what you want to use it for. Personally, I carry several cutting devices in the bush, usually a multi-tool, a good pocket knife, and a machete. Visit the "Knives" page for more about knives.
I would also suggest you have some means of sharpening the knife as well, be it a lightweight sharpening stone, a sharpening rod, or an easy to use "V" shaped sharpener. Smith's makes a good V sharpener called a Pocket Pal which is inexpensive, and contains crossed carbides, crossed ceramic stones for fine tuning, and a sharpening rod all in one lightweight small device.
The second, and arguably just as important as the first, "C" on the list is a combustion device.
Once again, it is common knowledge that fire is a super essential resource in the bush. It can be used to keep warm, dry clothes, cook food, sterilize water, ward off predators and insects, and a lot more. There are quite a few ways to make fire, and personally I like to have more than one with me when I'm in the bush.
The easiest and possibly most reliable fire starting method is a simple lighter. However sometimes even this won't work, for example if it gets wet, runs out of fluid, or is in a high elevation.
I like to also carry a "ferro rod" which is made of ferrocerium and creates a spark around 3,000 degrees F (1,650 C). It is basically like a flint & steel on steroids. It works very well but requires good tinder. Not all ferro rods are created equal, some produce hotter sparks than others. I personally like the "Light My Fire" brand ferro rod.
There are many other ways to make fire including matches, magnifying glass, parabolic lens, battery, fire piston, and of course basic friction fire like hand drills and bow drills. Point is, always have at least one! This will be discussed in more detail on the "Fire" page.
Cordage is a great resource in the bush, mainly for making good shelter. If you doubt the worthiness of cordage, try building a solid bushcraft shelter without tying anything.
Cordage can also be used for hanging stuff like clothes or meat to dry, fishing line, tying and carrying your equipment over your shoulder like a satchel, and even climbing rope, plus more. If you spend much time in the bush you will see its usefulness.
There are three main qualities to good cordage. They are length, tinsel strength, and flexibility. A lot of vines found in the bush can make for great cordage, and you should look for those three properties in any potential cordage.
There are a lot of vines that make for lousy cordage as well. For example, if a vine is extremely strong, but cannot be bent, then what good is it? Similarly, if it's really long but lacks strength, it will be a hassle to make anything happen with it.
It may not seem like it at first, but containers are extremely useful equipment to have in the bush. Without it you basically cannot sterilize contaminated water, or even carry water with you. They are also great for carrying supplies. Indigenous cultures often revolved around container use.
It's a good idea to have at least one metal container that you can use to carry water and sterilize it over a fire. I always carry a 100% stainless steel canteen in the bush. Even plastic and wood containers can be used to sterilize water by pasteurizing it around 160 degrees F (70 C) for 30 minutes.
Even something like a backpack or sack can qualify as a "container" and makes a big difference in the ease of traversing through the bush.
The final "C" on the list is cover. This can include your clothes. It becomes especially important in very hot or cold environments, where you want to block the beating sun or hold in warmth.
When traversing through thick bush with thorns and sharp edges, having your body covered with good clothes can make the difference between coming out unscathed or shredded with paper cuts, which can be uncomfortable and lead to infection.
In a desert environment you will want to cover your body to prevent sunburn. Of course, in a very cold environment cover becomes extremely important. It basically is your first line of defense against hypothermia.
You should always dress in layers in cold, winter environments, with the thinnest layer close to you and getting thicker each layer out. As soon as you start to feel hot, remove layers until you feel comfortable again, and as soon as you start to feel cold, add layers. The last thing you want to do in a cold situation is lower your core body temperature, or start sweating. As sweat cools the salt will cover your skin and give you deadly chills.
Cover can also include something like a tarp that can make a highly effective, easy shelter roof. Once again, "cover" is one of those things that easily gets overlooked, but once you are without it and need it, the value of such a simple resource becomes greatly appreciated.
Remember these 5 C's before heading into the bush, and 90% of your supply list will be complete.
Read about the "Five W's Shelter Checklist"
Check out the bushcraft guide SAS Survival Handbook
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